" Bread and beer for one day ". This simple annotation belongs to the list of expenses of a family that he was living in the Asian Mesopotamia 3000 years B.C.. The list is considered to be the most ancient text that remains. The former Egyptians were blessing Osiris for the gift of the barley and had distilleries of beer for six thousand years. The Greeks and the Romans of the classic epoch were grateful for Dionysus or for Baco for the creation of the grapevine and the " divine wine ". When the Captain Cook sailed along the seas of the South in the middle of the 16th century it found that the Polynesians were taking kava, an alcoholic drink that they were fermenting of a species of pepper. Bernal Díaz of the Castle, chronicler of the arrival of the Spanish, assured Tenochtitlan that the territory of the New Spain, it was " I fill of aloes (big and beefy plants), of which they do his wine ".

The Arabs used it agrees to her alkuhl to name to the "spirit" that there gets hold of everything that one that dares to abuse of the fermented products.


The alcohol is a colorless and volatile liquid that is present in diverse fermented drinks, in concentrations that go from 5 up to 20 %, since it is the case of the beer and the wines.
Some of these ferments are revealed by means of an alembic to increase his concentration etílica up to 40 %; this way it is since there take place the tequila, the whiskey, the vodka, the rum, the gin, the anise, etc

The chemical name of the alcohol is ethanol or alcohol etílico.
Depending on the kind of drink that contains it, the alcohol turns out to be accompanied of different chemical elements that provide it with color, flavor, smell and other characteristics.
Forms of adulteration
The content of alcohol etílico in a drink that has not surrendered to quality controls and health, can be diluted or reduced by methanol, an alcohol derived from the wood that on having be metabolized causes permanent blindness.

Mechanism of action and forms of employment
The alcohol is consumed by oral route. The time that happens from the last drink until the maximum concentrations are reached in the blood changes of 25 up to 90 minutes. When the ethanol reaches the brain it acts as a primary and constant depressor of the Nervous Central System. The apparent stimulation is actually a result of the depression of the mechanisms of inhibitory control of the brain. Since it happens with the majority of the drugs, his effects depend on the dose. The top centers get depressed first affecting the speech, the thought, the cognition and the judgment. As the alcoholic concentration increases, the low centers get depressed also affecting the breathing and the spinal reflections, up to coming to the alcoholic poisoning that can provoke a coma.

Therapeutic uses
During the Middle Ages the alcohol was in use as remedy for practically all the diseases; of fact in Welshman the word whiskey means " water of life ". Nevertheless today is admitted that the alcohol has a therapeutic extremely limited value. On the market they exist concentrated metilados of alcohol with industrial and medical applications. In the first case it is in use as solvent or thinner in the manufacture of paintings and other products. In medical uses it uses externally to disinfect the skin due to his bactericidal action; also it is used to treat some injuries of the skin and to diminish the perspiration.

The concentrations of alcohol differ from a drink to other one, it is for it that to medical level, the doses are in the habit of measuring up depending on the percentages that a person manages to accumulate in his blood torrent. Hereby it thinks that the low doses fluctuate between 0.02 and 0.06 %, whereas the lethal doses exceed 0.50 %. In daily terms, the quantity of alcohol is in the habit of measuring up across the ingested number of glasses, glasses, tins, bottles, etc. In persons who have not acquired tolerance towards the alcohol, it is possible to speak in terms of "drinks", this is, of the quantity contained in the type of container in the one that is in the habit of thinking the drink. For the wine for example, a low dose is of a glass, an average dose goes from two to three glasses and a high dose exceeds four glasses. In the case a vat prepared with rum and refreshment of tail, a glass is a low dose, two or three represent an average dose and more than four they are already a high dose. The human body only can metabolize from 10 to 15 ml of alcohol per hour. Major concentrations are considered to be lethal.

Psychological and physiological effects
Contrary to what the majority of the persons believe, the alcohol is not a stimulant, but a depressor of the nervous central system. As it an expert explains in neuropsicofarmacología since it is the Dr. Simón Brailowsky, the persons who are in the habit of attributing to him to the alcohol an increase in his mental verifiable capacity in his aptitude to make better certain things speak as, dancing or creating, they are wrong. What happens actually is that under the effects of the alcohol, these persons enjoy a space of desinhibición provoked by the depression of inhibitory mechanisms. On having diminished the inhibition, the mechanisms of control momentarily make way to the excitation.
To psychological level, the low doses produce the sensation of raising the state of mind and of relaxing the person. To physical level, a bit of alcohol it increases the cardiac frequency, expands the blood glasses, irritates the gastrointestinal system, stimulates the secretion of gastric juices and the production of urine. The average doses alter the speech, the balance, the vision and the ear. A sensation of euphoria is had and thin motorboat gets lost of the coordination, for what already it is not advisable to lead a car handling any type of machinery. In high doses, the previous symptoms sharpen and the mental powers are altered and of the judgment. If the individual continues drinking there can happen a loss of the motive control in the one that asks help from herself to be able to move and to there be an evident mental confusion. From a blood concentration equivalent to drink more than 10 drinks without any rest, a severe poisoning can happen; Any other increase in the concentrations can provoke from unconsciousness up to deep coma and death for respiratory depression.
In accumulative terms, the immoderate consumption irritates the stomach and produces gastritis, damages the heart when produce disorders of the cardiac and enclosed pace cardiac insufficiency; it damages also the liver, which consequence is such a known cirrhosis, a disease caused by the loss of hepatic cells that diminishes the production of bile. This generates other symptoms as bad digestion, loss of weight, cold, etc. Regarding the nervous system, the abuse of this drug can cause serious mental disorders as loss of the memory, deterioration of the learning, inflammation of the nerves, and even Korsakoff's so called syndrome, a psychotic condition characterized by the loss of the reality (when the picture malnutrition and deficiencies join vitamínicas chronic).
Consumed by embarrassed women the alcohol can concern the fetus and produce malformations or mental irreversible delay.

Potential of tolerance and dependence
The constant or frequent use induces a special type of tolerance that corporal enzima attributes to himself to the increase of the quantity and activity of entrusted of metabolizing the alcohol. The nervous fabric also gets used of certain form to the constant presence of the ethanol and the user goes adapting to the changes induced on the speech, the vision and the motive control. Nevertheless, this adjustment disappears in all that the concentration etílica reaches sufficient levels in the blood fluid (what happens frequently in cases of abuse).
The immoderate consumption of alcohol provokes a physical intense dependence. When throughout several months the organism has been been accustomed to consume at least three liters of beer or half a liter of strong liquor every day, the alcoholic suppression can present diverse manifestations that go from increasing anxiety and quakes, irritability and hyperactivity, up to the fearsome delirium tremens: an organic serious psychosis that usually demonstrates between 12 p.m. and 72 hours later to the ingestion of the last glass, though in occasions it can happen up to 7 or 10 days later. It is characterized by mental confusion, quakes, sensory hyperkeenness, visual hallucinations (in general of serpents, spiders or any other insect), dehydration, disorders of the blood pressure, convulsions and cardiovascular abnormalities.

The poisoning for alcohol demonstrates for confusion, dizziness, nauseas and vomit. This indicates that it has come near to a concentration of 0.14 or 0.15 % of alcohol in the blood. It indicates also that the majority of the consumers of alcohol suffer poisonings, though difficultly they see them like such and only they worry for deal " the raw one " of the following day.
The overdose etílica is characterized by general depression, cold and sticky skin, slow and noisy breathing, expansion of the pupils, tachycardia, stupor and syndrome of shock; symptoms that without professional assistance they lead to the coma and the death, by what they must be considered to be a medical urgency. In clinical facilities artificial breathing is applied when this one is situated depressed, the stomach is in the habit of emptying by means of aspiration, having taken care of anticipating the pulmonary aspiration and it is devoted hemodialisis or dialysis peritoneal.
Before any suspicion that the poisoning could owe to methanol and not to alcohol etílico is necessary to look for medical help, to provoke the vomit as soon as possible and to do that the person consumes any drink that contains alcohol etílico (not alcohol of external or industrial use), in order that the liver metabolizes this one and not the methanol. With it one prevents there being from formed the metabolito that damages the optical nerve. This measure can save the sight of the poisoned one.

Legal current regime
Any alcoholic drink is legal and sells freely between the adult population, who must consume it out of the thoroughfare. The manufacturers are forced to warn his clients about the dangers for the health and to recommend the moderate consumption.

Alcoholic Anonymous
It was not but up to the decade of the fifties, when the American Medical Association classified to the alcoholism as a disease, and this one started knowing as a combination of physical allergy to the alcohol accompanied of a compulsion for consuming it. It was started giving the appearance of a disease " compulsive and mortal, which does not respect kind, age or social condition ".. It was said that it was pronosticable, progressive and finally fatal if it was left without treatment. The investigators tried to isolate genetic and chemical variables up to finding what now is named " trend to the alcoholism ". The hope one offered them to whom they were suffering the addiction of that his mortal disease might tratrse successfully by means of the abstinence.
In this epoch the group of self-help arose called Alcoholic Anonymous, whose number of associates grew rapidly and whose program of recovery spread to the whole world. A popular phrase between the groups of recovery was: " we are not a bad people who tries to be good; we are a sick people who tries himself to recover. "
Many persons of all social conditions, relieved on having thought that they were sick instead of being bad, they began to report his personal histories publicly with the intention of giving confidence and of helping the others. Between the most famous alcoholic anonymous they were finding stars of cinema as Lisa Minelli, tailors, ladies of society, doctors, politicians, profesionistas of all classes and even the wife of a president of the United States.
The program of recovery of Alcoholic Anonymous is clear of twelve steps that in his moment better results achieved that the majority of the forms of therapy known to help the addicts to leave the alcohol. The system not only works being based on the total abstinence of the alcohol day for day, but it centers actively in a sophisticated and detailed scheme of personal assistance during 12 p.m. of the day to help the people to overcome the crises and to raise his quality of life by means of the sobriety and the spiritual maturity.
The first three steps of the program of recovery are the following ones:
1. We admit that we are impotent before the alcohol, that our life escapes from us.
2. We come to the belief of which a major Power that we can take us to the health.
3. We take the decision to put our lives and our will in God's hands, as we understand God. (To see more in Addictions)
The program stimulates the people to being honest with it itself and with the others, doing the possible thing for correcting the " shipwreck of the past ", but centring also on the opportunities and benedictions of the present moment, devoting itself not to creating personally any more difficulties. Also they motivate the people in order that he practises the prayer and the meditation, offering the possibility of seeing his problem as a " spiritual awakening " in which his intimate exhibition to the pain and the sequels of the addiction they could turn into a service for the others.
Bill Wilson, co-founder of Alcoholic Anonymous, speaks and writes with eloquence on the alcoholism and the need of a spiritual dimension in the recovery. Wilson's transformation began in the room of a hospital in the one that was receiving treatment after one of his many relapses. According to account, dabatía between the death or the madness and in his terrible desperation it shouted: " I will do what is, which is! If there is a God allow to see it! " These are his words:
Suddenly, my room filled with an indescribable white light. I met impeded by an ecstasy beyond any description... It was above of the top of a mountain, in which it was blowing of a great gale, a wind not of air but of spirit, which with great force blew across me. Then the shining thought took place: you are a freeman '... It impeded a deep peace ... and I turned very conciente of a Presence that was resembling a real ocean of living spirit. It was lying in the shores of a new world... For the first time I felt that really it existed. I knew that it was loved and that it could love.
From this day Bill Wilson already did not return to drink and little later cofundó Alcoholic Anonymous. Nevertheless, Wilson had his doubts on the validity of the experience and when his mind began to question what had happened to him, it was explained to his doctor asking him: " doctor, was it royal? Am I sane? " His doctor, William Duncan Silkworth had read it brings over of the experiences near to the death and it was capable of calming Wilson with regard to his sanity, breathing him to consolidate his new conscience and sobriety.

The effects of the alcohol in the energetic human field

Barbara Ann Brennan took doctor's degree on atmospheric physics and was employed as investigator at the FISHNET. During the last fifteen years it has devoted himself to study the field of the human energy and to practise the therapy bioenergética. She is an authoress of two books, Hands that recover and There be Done the light, which New Age has turned into props both of the new medicine and of the literature.

Barbara has begun to demonstrate scientific the existence of what the former mystical and esoteric texts were calling the human aura, same that it names the Energetic Human Field (CEH). This investigator began used diverse devices to detect it and to measure it and later it developed his own sensory perception up to managing to see this field and to distinguish his diverse caps (of fact he assures that anyone who should propose it can do it by means of exercises like that she suggests in his first book).
Thanks to his observations, which certainly coincide with those of other persons capable of seeing the aura, it has discovered that the ideas and the emotions associated with the above mentioned ideas present certain specific configurations in the energetic field of the human being.
As it explains, the psychological and emotional problems demonstrate in the CEH as dark blocks or configurations aurales of diverse turbid tones linked with the type of emotions that should be situated in conflict, and whose origin is in the negative ideas that a person supports at any one time. If these configurations persist in the CEH without be solving, sooner or later they cause a manifestation in the physical body of the person causing a disease.
Of equal form, Barbara could have observed with his high sensory perception (EPS) that the utilization of medicaments causes significant changes in the CEH.
In the concrete case of the psychoactive ones, the observations of Barbara it confirms the same thing that I support in the presentation and the conclusions of The drugs as is ... that his utilization can help or harm the persons depending of whom, how, when and under what circumstances it uses them. In agreement to his observations, the persons who are of benefit present certain configurations aurales on that certain specific medicaments can affect in a positive way mobilizing the energy and helping to undo the blockades.
Nevertheless it indicates that the enormous majority of the times the psychoactive ones only "dirty" the CEH and help to impede the resolution of the personal problems of the users adding more confusion to his already of for yes sick energetic fields. Barbara assures that especially:
The drugs like the LSD, the marijuana, the cocaine and the alcohol are harmful to the brilliant and healthy colors of the aura and create a " ethereal snot ", since it happens with the disease...

Nevertheless, due to the quantity of dark pollution of his field, this man had to do a wide energetic cleanliness to part with his snot etérico before it was achieving his energetic level raise the sufficient thing to clarify and to clear his feelings.
Barbara postulates that the origin of any disease comes from the belief from that each of us is an entity separated from the others and separated from God. He says that this belief is experienced as fear, from which all other negative emotions arise. And as soon as we have given place to these negative emotions we separate of them encasing them in energetic blocks and configurations aurales negative:
This process of separation perpetúa creating more pain and illusion, until the cycle of negative feedback breaks or is invested by means of a process of personal work... The key to break this vicious circle resides in the love and the connection with everything all that exists... The love is the experience of being connected to God and to everything else... When we are connected, we feel and are totally sure and free.
In his two books Barbara Brennan contributes effective solutions to invest the vicious circle of the beliefs and negative emotions to achieve the reconnection with the divine thing. I recommend widely his reading not only to those that are sick or have some problem of addiction, but to whom they take interest as the topics of science and spirituality.

The effects of the alcohol in the field etérico
Maguy and Daniel Lebrun are a pair of Frenchmen who have founded an impressive movement in favor of the collective prayer to help to cure the souls and the bodies of the different persons who come to them in search of consolation and sanación.

Daniel has developed extrasensory capacities that allow him to enter in touch with what they name both " doctors of the sky ", entities that they live in other dimensions and devote themselves to help the humanity.
These entities, some of which have exercised the medicine when they were personified in the third dimension of the Earth, which is the one that we live, constant they warn the friends and pupils of the Lebrum who to use psychoactive as the alcohol, the tobacco and the marijuana, cause considerable hurts, not only in the physical body, but in the subtle bodies that compose the human aura.

They assure also that from the most wide perspective that they have it brings over of the dimensions, are capable of observing that the entities of called " under astral " feel attracted to the energetic fields of the human beings who use these type of drugs and "they" "beat" them, helping to lower furthermore his vibratory cup and leading them to situations appellants of depressive type, of distress, fear and enclosedly violence. They say that the most frightening delirium tremens produced by the alcoholism in his last stages are not hallucinations but real visions of the entities that swarm in these fields of low frequencies.
To remove to this type of blights of the body etérico they recommend to suspend the consumption of substances (under medical supervision in case of the alcohol), to change environment, to realize a deep detoxification and to pray asking for guide and protection to the top or divine forces in which the person has confidence.
Lobsang Ramp, another author who writes brings over of metaphysical topics, makes clear him existence of the different dimensional planes that coexist with ours and assures that in the astral plane still there is duality and really they live positive and negative entities and that the above mentioned feel it attracted to the persons and the environments in which drugs are consumed in excess. Also he assures that the delirium tremens of the alcoholic ones are not hallucinations, but visions of the low planes of under astral.
In the book You and the eternity exactly speaks on the astral trips and recommends what to do if you think some astral entity that he calls " elementary spirits ":

They are spirits in the first phases of evolution., they correspond, in general lines, to the position that the monkeys occupy in the human world. The monkeys are irresponsible and naughty, are spiteful and vicious, and lack great power of own reason... The elementary ones, which occupy in the astral world the same place that the monkeys in the human world, are forms that move without intention, shout and do horrible grimaces, menacing movements, to the human being who travels for the astral one, but they cannot damage. If there has been had the misfortune of going to a mental hospital, and I dress really serious cases, one will have remained affected before the way that some worse cases behave doing menacing and senseless gestures. They drool, wave the arms, tremble ... but if they are faced by decision, since they have a low mentality, always they move back.

When one moves for the low planes of the astral one, they can find some of these strange creatures. Sometimes, if the traveler is shy, these creatures surround and try him to frighten it. But no danger moves along: they are inoffensive, really, until they one is afraid. When one initiates the astral trip, often it sees that two or three of these low entities approach to see since he travels, in the same way that likes to look at certain type of persons as an inexpert driver leads a car for the first time. The spectators always hope that it happens slightly bloodily or exciting, and sometimes, if a chauffeur is confused and hits against a lantern, for example, it causes a great pleasure to the spectators. These, as such, they are inoffensive; they are not any more than sensationalist that try to have a cheap emotion. Equally, the elementary ones want to have cheap emotions. They like to see the affliction of the human beings; Pro so much, if dread is demonstrated, elementary these will remain delighted, will continue gesturing and threatening. Actually they cannot do it covers the human beings; they are not even like the dogs that beside barking can bite; they are like dogs that bark but that do not bite, and the bark of the dog does not damage. In addition only they can be a nuisance while, for fear, there are allowed they.
Do not be afraid, it cannot to you happen at all ... you raise to the astral plane and ninety or ninety nine of every hundred you will not see to these low entities. Only you will see them if you are afraid of them. Normally you will happen over his kingdom; they are grouped at the back of the astral plane, in the same way that the worms gather in crowds at the back of a cavern.

The effects of the alcohol in the system of chakras
Donna Cunningham had several years working as specializing therapist addictions when it entered in touch with Andrew Ramer, a healer and canalizador with whom he collaborated to write two books: The spiritual dimensions of healing addictions and Further dimensions of healing addictions.

In the first book they support that in general, the human beings we fall in the addiction when we lose of sight or do not want to realize our "vision", or: " our skill of perceiving and taking part in the most wide reality, retaining a recollection, though it is weak, of our Top Being and of the tasks and intentions of our life ".
In the second book they explain with clarity how there were in use former the different psychoactive ones, which they are called " tools of power ", to recover and to support our vision; and since it is that, on having lost this knowledge, nowadays we abuse the same tools and to destroy ourselves with them instead of using them in our benefit.

In Further dimensions of healing addictions, between other many interesting things, explain to us which are the effects that have the principal addictive substances on the energetic human field, concretly on the system of chakras.
In case of the alcohol, Danna and Andrew assure that this one was introduced by intelligences of other planes which intention was to help ourselves to evolving:
The alcohol like tool was introduced as concept to our world by beings desencarnados. It was designed to alter our cerebral waves beyond the natural threshold of the experience primate and was pleasingly accepted for doing this. It served as a bridge to wake the vision up. This way it is that we have been chemically manipulated for more than 10,000 years. [...] What former we were calling gods actually are powerful guides desencarnados, more advanced spirits helping to the human conscience him move towards new and more free places. But with the time, the correct use of the wine and the changes of conscience that it brought were forgotten. The rules it brings over of how to canalize the energy they were forgotten or suppressed by the emergent nations and cities... The alcohol was a tool that took to us from an evolutionary pulto to other one. It facilitated our transition of tribal creatures towards global beings. But the alcohol already is not working as a planetary tool. The individuals who use it are to yes the same caught ones as striped discs that support them touching the same phrases again and again.
With regard to his ancient uses, the authors assure that the drinks fermented originally were becoming for chamanas women and were in use in certain rites for waking the vision up:
Then the alcohol and the dance were going together. The alcohol and to love they were going together. The alcohol is a tool of liberation; mental, emotional, physical and spiritual. The love about which we speak here is that one that exists between groups, but in the absence of community life, the persons use it often as a tool of expression in his personal relations. But united to the dance, in big groups of persons, in the new moon, in the crops and in the ferstividades, the alcohol provides a change in the levels of energy, hereby it is a great tool to canalize the energy of group [...] The oldest and spiritually more powerful drink, the wine, comes from the grape, which grows in spiral, as the returns of a dance. In these rural environments, the relación of the persons with the drink it was depending on the stations. They were planting, were taking care and gathering the grapes, were squashing them, and were storing them until the wine was ready. Something of wine was stored for other uses, principalemente therapeutic, the rest was drunk in the festivities and was not available all the year round.
In agreement to this logic, the exagerate consumption of alcohol in our current society has his origin in the following reasons:
In our culture, already there is no space for this alliance with the land or this seasonal pace of drinking. We live in cities where almost we do not have contact with the nature and have lost contact with the conocimeinto it brings over of how to use the alcohol of a sure way and hereby it destroys us instead of curing ourselves. The alcohol and the rest of the drugs affect us of different way in different epochs of the year and in the different phases in the bioritmo of the land, and for the same thing there are moments in which it is surer to use it.
The people who drinks have one deep unconscious recollection of which these drinks started by being tools of sanación. Besides the few ones that have survived, there were many very powerful medicines distilled or preserved in alcohol. This tool was the condom, not the vital ingredient, but we have lost this of sight... Many doctors and other persons who are alcohólictos remember this very well. [...] In the Half East the alcohol was used as a sacramental tool a long before the time of Jesus and a long before it was emerging the myth of the Sacred Grail in the Middle Ages. The grail is our collective heart. The message of the myth of the grail to the West is brings over of the need to open our heart. The grail is a part of the education of the addiction to the alcohol, part of his major sanación [...].
Between the persons who still turn towards the alcohol with the collective unconscious recollection of which these drinks were used to recover and to canalize the vision [...] it is important that they honor the capacity of transformation that they expressed in the past, without be leaving to catch for the tool that they used then. Between more the alcoholic ones honor his capacity of transformation, more they will be able to use the lessons of his adicicón to move hacie new and more high planes of conscience, and to help ourselves to the others to moving thither in the future.
What reveals your favorite drink brings over of you, according to Donna and Andrew:
THE DRINKERS OF BEER tend to have an excess of physical energy in the body that they are not using, that they are not canalizing correctly [...] The key word here is a frustration and not to have a channel for his energy. To do jogging, aerobics or some another regular exercise can liberate the energy shielded much more really than a bottle from beer.
THE DRINKERS OF WINE have too much mental energy. The people who is drinking too much wine should do a pause he gives birth to wonder to yes same: " what mental capacities am not I using correctly? " The key word here is not both frustration and sadness. The drinkers of wine frequently allow to remain caught in mental labyrinths that they do not lead nowhere... A small glass of wine, drunk slowly in the trasnscurso of an hour, will tend to lower the energy of the head and to distribute it in the whole body. More of it turns out to be counter-productive since it begins to lull the body and it is allowed the mind that it should run and divague furthermore freely. The recommendation for these persons consists of observing his mind, of practising some type of daily meditation.
THE DRINKERS OF HEAVY LIQUORS often have problems expressing his annoyance and they have to wonder to yes same of what they are angry. The key word here is an annoyance. A small drink drunk slowly throughout half an hour or forty minutes, it can help in the natural liberation of the energy of the annoyance transmuting it in a much more efficient and acceptable way that the songs of the drunkenness or the cathartic inventory of the personal history between targo and I swallow. More than one drink begins to poison the liver, which to metaphysical level, is where the annoyance is tried.
With regard to the effects of the alcohol in the chakras, we have the following thing:
Every addictive substance has an initial affinity with one or more of the chakras. Crossing the threshold of the abuse all the chakras get damaged, but the alcohol concerns severer the cardiac center. As the cardiac chakra shields himself, the energy remains concentrated on the three chakras low, that govern the autoestima, the sexuality and the safety. Between more deeply the person falls down in the alcoholism, major it will be the blockade. [...]
This hurt produces the common problems of the alcoholic ones and those that love them. There is a progressive absorption towards yes same, I withdraw of the contact with the world, an embittered and spiteful attitude and difficulties with the sexuality (already it is promiscuity or impotence). All that is understandable in the light of the funcionameinto of the chakras. It is very typical, near the last stages of the alcoholism, that the person experiences what colloquial there are called the "horrors" - periods of severe anxiety without any motive, with terror towards the telephone, the buses, the dogs, the mailboxs, any thing.
Slightly importantly to knowing it is that to be kept sober is sufficient. It is necessary to fight with the spiritual root of the addiction finding and working with the vision or the intention of life. Asímismo, is indispensable to repair the hurts produced by the blockade of nergía in the subtle bodies. All the chakras must be cleaned, particularly the cardiac chakra [...] East center is not opened spontaneously until there happens a powerful spiritual awakening or a great romence. If it remains closed, the person can feel isolated and wretch and therefore very vulnerably to the relapses. [...]
The pairs, lovers and nicños of alcoholic also they meet seriously affected by these blockades of the chakras. In a psychic level, the alcoholic ones and other addicts, still in recovery, have the aptitude to extract energy from others, in spite of his disability to use it. This way it is that those that live or work with alcohólcos assets or in recovery, often suffer from energy drenada, specially energy of the heart and can develop his own secondary dependences as to the sugar, to try to recover the energy. [...]
Additional to his effects on the cardiac chakra, the consumption of alcohol also affects the chakras of the throat and of the third eye. When the cardiac chakras is working, it serves as a bridge between the top and low chakras. But as the heart is blocked and the energy remains caught in the low chakras, in order to create some class of balance, the throat and the third eye are opened more. This type of expansion leads the vervosidad delusional of the addicted individuals, in such a way that they can speak and speak without coming to any point. [...] As the addiction progresses, this imbalance contributes to the delirium and the "hallucinations" of the advanced aspects.


The sugar was not known in the antiquity. None of the ancient books mentions it. The prophets only record a few things on the sugar cane, a rare and expensive luxury imported from distant lands. There assumes to the Persian empire the investigation and the development of the process that hardened and refined the juice of the cane, preserving it without fermentation to make his transport and trade possible. This happened soon after the year 600 of our age and began to be used as medicine. In this epoch, a bit of sugar was considered to be a rare and valued drug. They were calling India or honey a salt without bees and small quantities were imported to a great cost. Herodoto knew her as manufactured honey and Plinio as molasses.
During the epoch of Nerón a writer put the name of saccharum. Dioscorides refers to " a species of solid honey so called saccharum, who is in the canes in the India and in the Arabia; it has the consistency of the salt and is creaking ". The name in medieval Latin for a chunk of this precious substance was replaced later in west by that of sugar. The original word in Sanskrit continued always related to salt of India, surviving his transition across the languages of the Arabic empire and of the Latin languages. In fact the Sanskrit khanda there turned into the word candy (candy) into the language Englishman.


The sugar takes place across a chemical process from the juice of cane or of beet, eliminating the whole fiber and the proteins that form 90 % of the above mentioned plants.
In his book Poison in the food, the Dr. Lezner describes the process of extraction of the sugar in the following terms:

The beets are cut in chunks after washing them and then lixivian. To make clean the liquid that contains the sugar, lime is added. At this moment, the alkaline reaction destroys almost all the vitamins. In the liquid mixed with alive lime, carbon dioxide interferes, this way to precipitate the lime. The "saturated" liquid behaves towards the bombs of filtration that separate them the sugary liquid of the impurities. After another treatment with sulfate of calcium, for which the sulphuric acid bleaches it up to making it almost white, the liquid is boiled until it thickens. A centrifugation allows to separate the syrup of the raw sugar called molass, a product that contains a lot of substances that are not own of the sugar.
The molass is in use for preparing a substance similar to the alcohol of being hot and to feed to the cattle. In the refineries, this raw sugar has to transform still in common sugar or of consumption, for which has to happen for several processes more of cleanliness with carbonate of calcium, of whitening with sulphuric acid, of filtration across coal of bones and of boiling up to obtaining the crystals.
The sugar of white color that is sold and consumes commonly, is a refined saccharose. His chemical formula is: C12H22O11.

Mechanism of action and forms of employment
Since it is known, the cerebral functions depend on the levels of glucose. The lack of this cerebral fuel can cause from hypoglycemia up to schizophrenia due to the fact that the brain is "hungry" of glucose. The refined sugar is a simple enough glucose that for the same composition it does not need of a long process of digestion, the liver practically does not have to synthesize it and for the same thing it comes with amazing rapidity to the nervous system.
In order that the organism works in ideal conditions, the quantity of blood glucose must be in balance with the quantity of blood oxygen.

Refiriéndose to the psychic effects of the consumption of the sugar, the Dr. M.O. Bruker, makes clear that the elevation in the normal levels of glucose caused by his ingestion, is experienced as a slight euphoria. The consequences of the return to the normal levels, that is to say, the fall of glucose, it is situated in direct relation with the quantity of sugar consumed. If this one was low, the sensation is of one slight disforia. Between major it has been the quantity, the fall will be nearer to be experiencing as a depressive sensation that William Dufty has given in calling sugar blues (sadness of the sugar).

What normally is in the habit of happening to every person who consumes sugar in daily form, is that his levels of glucose are kept permanently over the regular level, that is to say, rarely a fall will be experienced towards the authentic normality in the levels of glucose. The majority of the world population literally lives under the effects of the sugar without knowing it and without noticing it. This permanent imbalance is being associated with diverse nervous disorders, specially in the children.
Therapeutic uses
None known.
A small spoonful, this is about 100 mg, is enough to cause an elevation in the levels of glucose in sensitive persons. The equivalent one to a cup of sugar 250 mg, can be considered to be already a high dose. There are no reports on lethal doses.
Psychological and physiological effects
As already it was indicated in the mechanisms of action, the ingestion of sugar is in the habit of being experienced as a slight euphoria. In his First Manual of Conscious Nutrition, Laura Urbina explains it in the following terms:
While the glucose is absorbed by the blood, we feel encouraged. A fast stimulus. Nevertheless, to this energetic impulse it follows a depression, when the bottom parts with the level of blood glucose. We are anxious, tired; we need to make an effort to move or even think. Until the level of glucose rises again … we Can be irritable, made a bundle of nerves, altered. The gravity of the double crisis depends on the overdose of glucose. If we continue taking sugar, a new double crisis begins always before the previous one finishing. The accumulative crises at the end of the day can be maddening. After several years with days like that, the final result they are glands adrenales sick, exhausted not for excess of work, but for a constant bustle. The production of hormones, in general, is low. The quantities are not molded. The functional, unbalanced alteration, it is reflected in the whole endocrine circuit. Very soon the brain can be in difficulties to distinguish the royal thing of the unreal thing; we are exposed to precipitates turning, when the stress intervenes in the process, crumble because we do not have already a system endócrino healthily to face any contingency. Day after day we meet a lack of efficiency, always tired, achieve nothing to do, really we suffer " sugar blues " (or depressions of the sugar) … Since in some persons the cerebral cells depend totally on the cup of sugar in the blood in every moment to feed, they are probably the most capable of suffering hurts. The alarming and increasing quantity of neurotic in the world demonstrates it clearly. Not they all come ultimately. Some persons begin with glands adrenales strong; others not. The degrees of abuse of sugar and of melancholy change, nevertheless, the body it does not lie - if sugar takes, they feel the consequences.
Already there are different the specialists who attribute to the sugar the indexes increasingly raised of hyperactive children, the incompetence to learn and diverse allergies. The study of the daily record of the patients diagnosed like schizophrenic they reveal that his diet is excessively high in sugar and other elements that stimulate the production of adrenaline as the caffeine and the alcohol.
As for the physical aspect, it is known that the ingestion continues of sugar provokes the appearance of caries and blackens the teeth. In persons with glands adrenales weak it can affect the pancreas up to causing diabetes. In some cases the continued abuse leads the hipoglicemia.
In healthy persons, it relates also to the increase of weight since the sugar is a carbohydrate and the excess of the same ones turns into fat. One has thought also that on having consumed sugar the body eliminates the calcium in major quantity, in such a way that the organism meets forced to remove it of the bones and the fabrics that are the only parts where the body stores it. The wear of calcium in bones causes that they become porous and fragile, which finally drives to the osteoporosis.
The constant consumption of psychoactive this one also atrophy the performance of the glands, causing few secretion of hormones or altering the chemical composition of the same ones, since one could have verified that the sugar affects the correlation of minerals in the organism. Finally, recent studies link to the sugar with problems in the immunological system, as it is denounced by the doctor Nancy Appleton in Lick the sugar habit:
One of the seemingly inoffensive substances and nevertheless one of that major problems creates on having attacked our immunological system is the sugar. The macrophages remain obstructed in the sugar and his action is disabled. The mission of the macrophages consists of destroying, of blocking and activating the immunity when they detect the presence of a toxin, a virus or a bacterium … Whenever we consume sugar, though it is so small as two spoonfuls, the proportions of minerals enter in desbalance. This desbalance in turn, in already sick persons, can last hours and sometimes already they do not recover. When the minerals of the body are in desbalance day after day, year after year, possibly for generations, the skill of the body to return to his homeostasis is exhausted. The body already cannot return to his harmony or balance … Turns out to be so incredible that the authorities of the Department of Public Health of different Nations continue supporting to the public in the total ignorance. More than has been obtained by it is to force to indicating in the etiquette of the industrial products if they contain sugar, thing that appears practically in 90 % of the same ones since even the salty products are preserved in sugar!

Potential of dependence
Considerably high. The dependence is of psychological and physical type. His syndrome of abstinence experiences even after several weeks of credit descontinuado totally the use of sugar and food that contain it. His symptoms include depression, fatigue, edginess, anxiety for eating sweet food, lack of concentration, allergies and hypertension. In extreme degree the dependence to the sugar appears as hypoglycemia, in whose case a privation of sweet food can drive to fatal assaults.

What to do in case of emergency?
In a crisis of hypoglycemia, one presents a sudden fall of blood glucose that causes sweat, quake, anxiety, tachycardia, headache, sensation of hunger, weakness, convulsions and in extreme cases, convulsions and death. The individual who presents a crisis of this type must consume in an immediate way glucose or food that contain sufficient sugar to restore the levels.

Legal current regime
The sugar is the psychoactive legal one of use irrestricto that takes place and is sold by tons, already be in form pure or incorporated into an enormous quantity of nourishing and pharmaceutical products.

The evolution of the consumption of sugar
Throughout last two centuries, no eatable one it has experienced a quantitative growth so accelerated as the sugar. In 1800, the annual world production was placing in less than 250,000 tons, number that rose up to reaching 10 million tons in 1900. In order century the production is calculated in 92 millions. The consumption for person and year has been increasing principally in the countries industrialized of America and Europe.

The sugar and the slavery
In William Dufty's opinion, no other product has influenced so deeply the history of the western world as the sugar. In his book Sugar Blues narrates the appearance of the sugar refined in the international markets and his consequences. To it it attributes different historical events of big economic repercussions, beginning for a resurrection of the Crusades. Dufty presents an extract of a letter sent in 1306 to the Pope Clemente V, where one urges him to follow a strategy to conquer the Arabic with help of the sweet: " In the country of the sultan the sugar grows in big quantities and of this one the sultans obtain big income and taxes. If the Christians could be done by these lands, it would be done very much I damage the sultan and at the same time the Christianity would be totally supplied from Cyprus ". Before twisted information of this type, the christianity bites the forbidden fruit and they begin seven centuries of his reign in the land. The British historian Noel Deer, for example, assures that on having counted the history of the slavery, it is not exaggerated to calculate that they traded 20 million Africans and two third parts of them were paid by sugar.
In 1444 the Portuguese take 235 black slaves of Lagos Seville, where they sell as slaves. Ten years later the Pope blesses the slaves' traffic and from then, these are in use for making grow the plantations of sugar cane in Madeira and the Canary Isles. The holadeses appear in this history about the year 1500, date in which they construct the first refinery of sugar in Antwerp. The sugar cane in brute embarks from Lisbon, the Canary Isles, Brazil, Spain and the Ivory Coast to be tried in Antwerp. The sugar is exported to the Baltic one, Germany and England.
For 1560, Carlos V releases the resplendent palaces of Madrid and Toledo constructed with the taxes of the trade of the sugar. For these dates, the British wreath begins to be done of the monopoly installing foremen in the islands that it has conquered in the Carib and taking charge of the slaves' traffic towards them to cultivate sugar cane. Such it is the case of the current Jamaica.
With the juice fermented of the sugar cane in crude oil, the slaves invent the rum, which the Britishers do not hesitate to commercialize to obtain any more slaves. Also they introduce it to his North American colonies, where they are in the habit of giving it to the Indians in exchange for valued skins that then sell in Europe. About the year 1660 the trade of sugar and rum has turned so profitable that the english men are ready to tackle the war to support his control. The minutes of navigation have as goal anticipate the transport of sugar, tobacco or any other product of the colonies of North America to any other port out of England, Ireland or British possessions.

The end of the slavery and the beginning of the industrialization of the sugar
In the middle of the 18th century, when France has placed already in the first rows of the trade of sugar and this one represents his principal source of exports, the philosopher Claude Adrien Helvetius writes: " a barrel of sugar does not come to France without spots of blood. Before the misery of these slaves, every person with feelings should resign these goods and refuse to the pleasure that provides something that only it is possible to buy with the tears and deaths of unfortunate creatures. " In 1812, Benjamin Delessert finds the way of trying the beet to turn her into sugar and receives Honor's Legion of Napoleon's hands, who arranges the plantation of sugar beets throughout of France, where one was not giving the culture of cane, but yes that of beet. Only one year later Napoleon reaches the prowess of producing 4 million kilos of sugar of French beet. Hereby, the Frenchmen are the first ones in being able to do without the slaves to obtain the valued sugar and elegantly they promote the abolition of the slavery. The British East Indian Company - already fullly put into the trade of the opium - exploits the topic of the slavery as campaign of propaganda doing in his barrels. " Sugar of the East Indies not cultivated by slaves ". In 1833 there is proclaimed the emancipation of the British colonies and this means that the slavery turns illegally except in " the land of the freedom ", the emergent United States of America.
The British sugar-basins of Barbados and Jamaica fall down in the ruin and a triad of inventions at the beginning of the 19th century prepare the scene for the great entry of The United States in the business of the sugar: James Watt perfects his steam engine, Figuier completes a method to do coal with animal bone and Howard makes the pot of pressure. With these elements he receives life the sugar white refined commercial that is in use nowadays. On the abolition of the slavery having delivered a judgment finally in his lands, the United States begin to practise his own economic wholesale colonialism in Cuba. The best Cuban land is used to provide raw material to North America for his complicated refineries.
According to account Dufty, the Americans exceeded the Britishers and virtually to all other nations in the holiday of the sugar. They have consumed a fifth part of the world production of sugar from his Civil war. It is known also that in 1920, in the epoch of the experiment of prohibiting the alcohol in The United States, the quantity of sugar that was consumed had doubled. This emphasizes his evident character of drug and of substitute of other drugs in certain sectors of the population.
It is for it that across war and peace, depression and prosperity, droughts and floods, the consumption of sugar has grown firmly in the whole globe. " It is not possible that there has been a more drastic challenge for the human body in the whole history of the man, and nevertheless ever, continues being so that one speaks about the nocividad of the sugar. And it is not because many people do not know it, but because the commercial interest is enormous for the sugar. "

The appearance of new diseases thanks to the sugar
The doctor Robert Boesler writes in 1912: " The modern manufacture of the sugar has brought his his totally new diseases: scurvy, diabetes, hipoglicemia, hyperactivity and schizophrenia. The sugar that sells is not anything any more than a crystallized concentrated acid. As former the sugar it was so expensive that only the rich ones could allow him his use, was consisting, from the point of view of the national economy, something inconsistent. But today, when due to his low cost, the sugar has caused a human degeneracy, it is the moment to insist on a general clarification. "
In 1929 the doctor Frederick Banting, discoverer of the insulin, assures that his discovery is the simple palliative one, not one recovers, and that the only way of anticipating the diabetes is cutting the use of the sugar: " In the United States, the incident of diabetes has increased proportionally with the consumption per capita of sugar. With the warming and recrystallization of the natural sugar of cane, something remains upset turning to the products refined in dangerous food. "
Dufty affirms that the difference between the "costly" diseases like the cancer and the "barters" like the provoked ones for the addiction to the sugar is crucial for the financial health of the medical estate. " The current orthodox treatment for the cancer is criminalmente expensivly. The financial ruin of the patient and of his family they represent the yacht of the doctor. The treatment for the sugar blues (hipoglicemia or diabetes) is an offer of individual court. Part you with the sugar refined in all his forms and good-bye you count to the doctor and hospital. It is difficult that in this case the doctor could give the covered one with mink to the woman or to be present at a seminar under the Sun of the Bermudas. "

The behavior of the hyperactive children opposite to the sugar and the medical manipulation
To this drug one has linked him with the negative behavior of the children from the decade of 1920. The idea of the cause and effect relationship began to gain acceptance in the seventies, when several studies and articles suggested that the sugar was increasing the hyperactivity in the children already of for yes hyperactive.
In agreement with the different studies analyzed by the doctor Nancy Appleton, the clinical investigation of hyperactive and psychotic children, and of others with cerebral injuries and incompetence to learn, has as picture sintomatológico: " a family which record of diabetes is abnormally high; an unusual incident of elevation of blood glucose or hipoglicemia functional in the same children, indicating that his systems cannot try the sugar and a dependence for a high level of sugar in the diets of the own children who cannot assimilate. "
Nevertheless, this one and other similar reports have been rejected by medical publications as The New England Journal of Medicine, for whom " the connection has not been proved ". Worried because " at present, nevertheless, many parents treat to the connection sugar - behavior as a fact ", an equipment of institutional doctors gave itself to the task of returning to check the existing studies to effect a global analysis. The medical publication exposed that " the new one puts analysis tried to go beyond the results of small studies locating them in a major group in order that the least obvious effects were exposed to the light. " It is supposed that the varied studies evaluated the effect of the sugar in numerous factors, including state of mind, academic performance, skills of learning, aggression and general behavior. What actually happened with this examination is a clear sample of the manipulation that can suffer a scientific study to obtain the results that in advance try to be reached when there are economic interests of for way.
It turns out that the investigators based his comparative studies only on two groups of children, to one sugar was given and to other one, instead of depriving it of the above mentioned drug and of the food that contain it, there was given he endulzantes artificial; this way so, the examinations were effected between children that there consumed sugar and children who consumed endulzantes artificial; it is to say between two groups of children with upset levels of glucose due to one or drugs other one and not since it have should to have been: between one or two groups of children using sugar and / or endulzantes artificial and another group of children deprived of the consumption of both classes of drugs.
Due to these diversions in the investigation, the meta medical analysis concluded triunfalmente that " Apart from two extreme observations that turned out to be insignificant for the final analysis, they did not find differences between the children who consumed dose of sugar and those that took endulzantes artificial. " Or that the only thing that really proves the report is that there are no substantial differences between using sugar and using endulzantes artificial. Nevertheless, down the manipulative and dishonest title of " The sugar does not affect the behavior of the children ", the results of the report were published and widely spread worldwide during the year of 1996. The final recommendation of the report is that " the sugar does not have negative effects in the behavior and the learning of the majority of the children and justification does not exist to withdraw the sweet food from them only for this reason. "

The effects of the sugar in the energetic human field and the system of chakras
Donna Cunningham had several years working as specializing therapist addictions when it entered in touch with Andrew Ramer, a healer and canalizador with whom he collaborated to write two books: The spiritual dimensions of healing addictions and Further dimensions of healing addictions.

In the first book they support that in general, the human beings we fall in the addiction when we lose of sight or do not want to realize our "vision", or: " our skill of perceiving and taking part in the most wide reality, retaining a recollection, though it is weak, of our Top Being and of the tasks and intentions of our life ".
In the second book they explain with clarity how there were in use former the different psychoactive ones, which they are called " tools of power ", to recover and to support our vision; and since it is that, on having lost this knowledge, nowadays we abuse the same tools and to destroy ourselves with them instead of using them in our benefit.

In Further dimensions of healing addictions, between other many interesting things, explain to us which are the effects that have the principal addictive substances on the energetic human field, concretly on the system of chakras.
In case of the sugar, Danna and Andrew start by noticing:
Some of the things that we say later will be difficult to happen because those who abuse the sugar it does not like to consider to be to yes same as addicted. [...] The sugar IS A DRUG, probably do not alter your conscience of an obvious and immediate way as the alcohol or the tablets, but it produces changes in the physical, emotional, mental and spiritual condition of the user. And as any other addiction, it is devastating in these four levels.
It is in the nature of all the addicts to deny that they have an addiction. And also it it is to appear towards other addicts and to say " My problem is not so serious as this ". Specially the addicts to the sugar suffer from this form of denial, partly because in our culture the power of the sugar is underestimated greatly as drug. The announcements push us to consume it, the giant nourishing corporations push us to consume it and the social situations push us also. The sugar has turned into the major pollutant of our eaten ones. On the other hand, the denial comes from the fact itself from that the sugar affects the solar plexus, the seat of the auto estimates. And of giving gone out for the car resultant hatred, the addicts to the sugar compromise themselves in looking out of them for the addiction. Mantén an opened mind brings over of this. Part of this will remain registered and will be employed at your top conscience, it does not matter cuan vehementemente reject it to level conciente.
Former, according to the authors, the consumption of sweet things, as the rest of the food, was subject to the availability that the changes of stations were allowing:
Before we did not have desserts every day. As the alcohol, his use was limited to special occasions, days off, holidays and celebrations. There were tribal and familiar celebrations that were hardening the bows of the groups. For many cultures, the only occasions in which sweet things were consumed it was in the matrimonial celebrations, and this unconscious recollection still can be influencing our tendency to the sugar when we have an addiction provoked by previous deficiencies in the chakra of the heart. [...] it is not important if so delicious it could be, the corporal paces of assimilation of the sweet food, they have been so upset as those of rest and work, and already we do not communicate with our bodies to see what they need. [...]
When we are children and fall ill they programme us saying to us " He Eats - this will give you forces ", though surely the fasting us would go better in such situations. Then we are programmed from the childhood to see to the food as a source of power, and between more forces we believe nececitar to fulfill our vision, more we eat looking for this force. The fuel of our bodies is the glucose, our primary one and more direct tool of power. This way it is that the abuse of sugar, which is narrowly tied to the glucose, is partially it brings over of fuel, and our eaten ones every time contain less energy due to the whole processing. We confuse food with energy and eat when we feel drenados. Even the commercial ones make see to the sugar as an instantaneous source of energy. If the energy and the food were the same thing, between more we were eating, more energy we would have. But instead of it, to be exceeded eating reason a collapse of energy in the whole body. The tried food has lost his energy, his force of life, and nosoros still we have the expectation of which the food contains it.
With regard to the effects of the sugar on the energetic system, they say to us that.
The primary addiction of the addicts to the sugar is to the love. The general collapse of our cardiac chakras, owes to our form of life in which the alienation and the loss of values, it means that many of us we experience very little love in our daily lives. A reason of the confusion between the sugar and the love is that the sugar causes a flow of blood to the area cardiac, and this makes us believe, to level incosnciente, that this chakra is nourished. [...] Ultimadamente, which the sugar does is to debilitate the walls of the heart and the blood glasses creating a such tolerance that we need more and more sugar to obtain the same rush. [...] The hurt done in the chakra of the heart reverberates strongly on the chakra of the solar plexus. The obstruction of this center drives to feelings cars I hate. Additional, when the energy of the heart is bloqueda, the person does not feel dear, and the problems of the solar plexus transladas to it: " There must be anything bad in me if nobody loves me. "
The sugar also has a powerful effect in the first chakra, since it pulls the energy of him to take her above and to produce the rush of energy in the heart. [...] The obstructions and the breaks of the first chakra can predispose to problems of increase of weight or of alcoholism.



On October 28 and 1492, Rodrigo of Sherry and Luis de la Torre, two companions of Christopher Colón, were the first western ones that saw the Indians smoking tobacco. Rodrigo of Sherry imitated them immediately, without suspecting that on returning to his land he should be imprisoned by the Holy Inquisition accused of witchcraft since " only the devil could give to a man the power to extract smoke for the mouth ".
Before the arrival of the Spanish, in the whole American continent the aborigens were consuming the tobacco with die both ritual and therapeutic. They were coiling it in the shape of cigar, were wrapping it in leaves of maize like cigarette or were smoking it in pipe. Also they were in the habit of including it in syrups to drink it. The tobacco was a magic plant for the pre-Hispanic peoples of Mexico because " it makes the breath visible ".
The Europeans began to incorporate it into his customs up to the 17th century, immediately after "he" her "treats" that there managed Jean Nicot of the migraines of Catalina de Médicis, wife of the king Enrique II of France. In those days the tobacco was called holy grass or grass for all the males because it was recommended almost indiscriminately for all kinds of suffering.
The plant Nicotinia tabacum owes his name to Jean Nicot, the doctor who introduced and popularized his use in Europe.


The plant of the tobacco has a straight stem and broad leaves. The Nicotine tabacum gives reddish yellow flowers and the rustic Nicotine. The crop is gathered when the leaves begin to acquire a saffron-coloured tone. The leaves dry up up to losing 60 % of his dampness and across a process of fermentation the tobacco ends up by acquiring his typical aroma.
There exist Nicotinia's diverse varieties obtained by hybridization (rustic, virginia, etc.).
To commercial level, the tobacco sells tied in cigarettes or in cigars, though also it is packed rice to be smoked in pipes or in handmade cigarettes by paper.


The nicotine is the active beginning of the tobacco. It was isolated by Posset and Remagnet in 1828.
According to his variety, the tobacco contains between 0.5 and 16 % of nicotine. The rest is the so called tar, an obscure and resinous substance composed by several chemical agents, many of which are generated as result of the combustion (cyanide of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxide of nitrogen, ammonia, etc.)

Forms of adulteration
The industry of the tobacco is submitted to regulations of quality and this product is relatively cheap, is not in the habit of becoming corrupted.

Mechanism of action and forms of employment
The tobacco can be chewed, inhaled directly by the nose (pulverized in the shape of snuff) or smoked in pipes, cigars or cigarettes. Inhaling the smoke, this is " giving him the blow ", it is possible to absorb up to 90 % of the nicotine, whereas if this one remains only in the mouth, the number diminishes to 20 or 35 %. Approximately 8 seconds after having entered to the lungs, the nicotine contained in the tobacco reaches the blood torrent and at the longest in 5 minutes it has managed to penetrate the barrier hematoencefálica to come to the brain. His effects last between 5 and 10 minutes provoking phases of stimulant action and action depresora of the nervous central system. In the first instance it stimulates some sensitive recipients and produces an unload of adrenaline that accelerates the cardiac frequency and the arterial pressure raises; later it depresses all the autonomous ganglions of the nervous peripheral system.
According to the last investigations of the Brookhaven national Laboratory of New York, the effect of the nicotine in the brain consists of the reduction of the enzima MAO-B, person in charge of regulating the transmission of the dopamine, neurotransmitter that it controls between other mental alterations, the motivation and the pleasure. Therefore, to MAO-B's minor quantity (up to 40 % less in the brain of an addict), major increase of dopamine; increase that, on having intervened in the thalamus, turns into the key to be sorry to gain one irrepressible of returning to smoke another cigarette.
Therapeutic uses
Nicolás Monardes, in his description of The plants of the New World (1574), was recommending the tobacco as infallible priest for 36 different diseases. Nowadays, it is recommended inside the medicine herbolaria against the mange, rheumatic pains and certain nervous affections. The medical herbalist's Arias Carbajal recommend to boil 90 grams of leaves of tobacco in half a liter of water to destroy the mange, the louses, etc. Also it prescribes the fresh leaves applied on the forehead and the temples to recover, or at least to abate, the neuralgias.
The average content of tar of a cigar changes from 0.5 to 35 mg, and that of nicotine from 0.5 to 2 mg. The lethal dose of nicotine calculates in 60 mg for an adult of 70 kg. A cigar can contain even 90 mg, though since already we mention, the ingestion of nicotine in the cases in which one does not give the blow diminishes to less than the half.
Psychological and physiological effects
To mental level, the nicotine facilitates the concentration, activates the memory and, to a certain extent, it controls the increase of weight on having increased the expense of energy, having diminished the senses of the smell and the taste, and to support the busy smoker forthwith of smoking instead of eating. Every person in addition has his particular considerations with regard to the things that the tobacco " does for her ". Some of them believe that it inspires them, others believe that he accompanies them, etc. As it counts the filmmaker Luis Buñuel in his memories, for example, for him was:

Impossible to drink without smoking. I started smoking at the age of sixteen and still I have not left it. Certainly, rarely I have smoked more than twenty cigarettes a day. What have I smoked? Of everything. Black Spanish tobacco. Approximately twenty years ago I got used to the French cigarettes: the "Gitanes" and especially, the "Celtiques" are those that more I like.
The tobacco, which he marries admirably with the alcohol (if the alcohol is the queen, the tobacco is the king), is a nice companion with whom to confront all the events of a life. He is the friend of the good ones and of the bad moments.

A cigarette is ignited to celebrate a happiness and to drown a sorrow. Being alone or accompanied. The tobacco is a pleasure of all the senses: of the sight (it is nice to see under the paper of silver the white cigarettes, aligned like for magazine), of the smell, of the tact... If they were bandaging the eyes to me and were putting between the lips a flushed cigarette, I would refuse to smoke. I like to be sorry the package in the pocket, to open it, to feel the consistency of the cigarette, to notice the fret of the paper in the lips, to please the flavor of the tobacco in the language, to see to sprout the flame, to bring it closer, to fill with heat. A man called Dorronsoro, Spanish engineer of Basque origin and republican exiled in Mexico whom it knew from the University, died of a cancer of the so called ones " of smoker ". I went to see him to the hospital in Mexico. It had pipes throughout and was taking a mask of oxygen that he was taking from himself occasionally, to give a sip to a cigarette, furtively. He smoked until the last hours of his life, public inspector to the pleasure that was killing him. Therefore, respectable readers, to finish these considerations on the alcohol and the tobacco, parents of firm friendship and of fecund dreams, I will permit to give them a double advice: neither drink nor smoke, it is bad for the health. I will add that the alcohol and the tobacco accompany very pleasingly the act of love. In general, the alcohol comes before, and the tobacco later. (3)
To physical level, the nicotine increases the cardiac frequency, the respiratory pace, the arterial pressure and the coronary flow. During the combustion of the tobacco, some of his elements transform in carbon monoxide, poisonous emission that he contributes to the emergence of cardiac diseases. When the carbon monoxide enters to the blood torrent, it tends to replace the oxygen contained in the red cells of the blood forming carboxihemoglobina. In the smokers, up to 10 % of the total hemoglobin it can be carboxihemoglobina, which is equivalent to say that his fabrics receive 10 % less of oxygen.
In the long term the smoking has diverse effects on the system broncopulmonar, cardiovascular and digestive. The gastric sores and duodenales are doubly more common between the smokers. The wounds of the skin can be late more in recovering due to the fact that the nicotine reduces the levels of vitamin C in the organism. In addition, the smoke of the cigarette produces inflammation in the mucous one of the respiratory device and increase of the production of one enzyme called elastasa, that degrades the elastina, constitutive material of the lung to the one that owes his aptitude to expand to himself and to contract. The habit of smoking provokes that the pulmonary fabric loses his elastic properties, seemingly in an irreversible way, with the consistent decrease in the pulmonary aptitude to deposit oxygen to the blood.

The tar can cause bronchial disorders and contains substances that are considered to be carcinogenic, is for it that to the tobacco they attribute to him 90 % of the cases of pulmonary cancer in the world and also it relates to the appearance of cancer in the mouth and in the throat

Medical reports calculate that in whole it causes 30 % of all the deaths produced by the cancer, 30 % of the cardiovascular diseases, 75 % of the chronic bronchitises and 80 % of the cases of emphysema; though of fact, the New Medicine has verified since the cancer takes as an origin an emotional conflict that arises for surprise and there is lived in isolation, which would explain why not all the smokers suffer invariably from cancer, in spite of the fact that they have a good favorable environment in order that he appears.
Also one assures that the smoking women can see his fertility limited, to suffer menstrual disorders and, in case of using contraceptive tablets, they are 39 times more inclined to suffer hearts attacks that those who do not smoke.
Though there are not waited genetic disturbances of the use of the tobacco, this one can increase the risk of premature childbirths and of low weight in the newborn children.
Potential of tolerance and dependence
The chronic consumption of nicotine accompanies of a slight tolerance. Until it exceeds his habitual dose, the smoker does not experience the effects of nausea and motion sicknesses that there are in the habit of bringing the persons who are not accustomed to the tobacco.
The nicotine provokes a physical severe enough dependence. The syndrome of abstinence appears in the first 24 hours later to the suppression and demonstrates for: irritability, worry, headaches, decrease of the cardiac frequency, increase of the appetite, decrease of the wake or insomnia and difficulties of concentration. In case of the nicotine, the psychological dependence plays also a preponderant paper, for what the syndrome of abstinence can last several days or several weeks. The administration of nicotine in chewing gums or in patches can relieve partially this syndrome.

The poisonings for nicotine are very rare, almost they are never given for chewing or to smoke tobacco but for the accidental ingestion of nicotine in pure form or for the direct contact across the skin. The manifestations of poisoning include nauseas, diarrhea, tachycardia, drastic increase of the arterial pressure and salivation. With big doses they present convulsions, respiratory slowness, cardiac irregularity and comma, by what it must be considered to be a medical urgency.

Legal current regime
The tobacco is the psychoactive legal one. All the adult persons can buy tobacco freely, though the areas to smoke it are restricted increasingly. The manufacturers only are forced to inform his clients about the risks for the health.

The sacred functions of the former rites of the tobacco
The fire was recognized by the former inhabitants of America as a transmutador and liberating of the power of certain substances. They were thinking that it was doing the things more active than passive and was liberating the essence of the substances. Because of it it is that they were burning and smoking a great variety of substances. They had different good for smoking mixtures depending on the needs of the ritual and on the station. A lot of used varieties have become extinct or his properties have been forgotten.

The tobacco was used by his properties to stop the thought, to focus and to centre on one itself, which was a previous preparation to be able to listen to the spirits you guide, to the spirits of the naturalez and to the beings who live in other dimensions or planes of conscience. The tobacco was serving as preparation, but it was not opening the aptitudes to listen to these guides. For ésto other ingredients were added.

The tobacco only was constituting between 5 or maximum 10 % of the mixture to smoke. The former inhabitants believed that the native plants of the different regions were created by the spirits of the nature to satisfy the specific needs of the persons and native animals of every area, because of it it is that the different tribes were using different plants, depending on which were that cracían in the locality and on the intention of the ceremony. The shamans were those who knew which to use in every occasion.
The sage, of which there are at least 20 different varieties, was considered to be specially useful in the rituals of the women. Other common ingredients were lavender, sunflower, barks of different trees and plants dry and pulverized with psychoactive properties.
Each of them was gathered by reverence by the shamans who knew which were his power, when they could be recolectardas and how to dry them to the Sun in order that it was absorbing his energetic properties. In the rituals of preparation, the tobacco and all these plants were altered, purified and raised of vibration by the help of lasplegarias and invocations to the spirits. In addition, the stones with which traditionally the pipes were manufactured were in yes the same transformadoras of the energy of the tobacco and other plants. This was a part of the ritual and part of what was making them effective, since actúaban chemically like liberating of the psychoactive substances of certain plants. All that is recorded in Black Elk's book: The Sacred Pipe, the tuxedo rites of the Siux.
Another important part of the sacralidad of smoking was that was realized in group, inside a ceremony, to reduce the bows between some and others. This was done to mix and to integrate the energies on having inhaled the same smoke. At the conclusion of a tribal war, to spend the pipe of the peace was a way of establishing the union, of leaving the differences to go.

The vaccine antitobacco
It is calculated that in the world there exist 1,100 million persons addicted to the tobacco. The nicotine is considered to be the most addictive second drug that exists, only overcome by the star player (derivative of the cocaine). The fight against the habit of smoking is one of the principal challenges for the organisms that are employed at the defense of the public health. At the same time as the campaigns antitobacco and the measures increasingly strict that the governments adopt to stop the hurt to the so called passive smokers (those who inhale the smoke of the tabacos that others smoke), the scientists seem to have found a new treatment: a vaccine called Nicvax, which one finds in experimental phase and which has as principal effect prevent the arrival of the nicotine to the centers of the brain where this substance produces pleasant sensations.
In the Foundation for Minneapolis's Medical Investigation, they have experienced this vaccine with mice:
The collaborators of the doctor Paul Pentel take charge that the rodents turn into eager addicts. Every day they they administer a quantity of nicotine equivalent to the one that 10 cigarettes contain. After a week, the mice show clear symptoms of addiction. Then they divide in two groups: To it receives Nicvax's dose, which one does not administer to the group B. Later it returns to inject the nicotine, and little by little they are diminishing the doses. In the group To, the progressive disappearance of the drug does not provoke the symptoms typical of a syndrome of abstinence, because the nicotine does not activate the cerebral mechanisms that generate the sensation of pleasure. In the group B the edginess spreads, the mice become hyperactive and demand the substance that one has withdrawn from them. The last phase of the process of test consists of analyzing the brains of the mice of both groups. In the brain of the mice that received a dose of the vaccine one finds 65 % less of nicotine that in of those that were not inoculated by Nivax. (16)
The vaccine achieves these effects in the mice due to the fact that the particles of nicotine that come to the blood across the lungs are very small and have an enormous mobility, them allows it to infiltrate into any corner of the human body evading the system inmunitario. The doctors Naso, Enifar and Fattom who have patented already the vaccine, obtained that the system inmunitario was creating agents who were reacting to the nicotine, antibodies that were capturing his particles and were giving to them a size that was preventing his access to brain. The doctor Naso explains: " In the laboratory let's believe a compound by means of the combination of a not toxic protein with several particles of nicotine. When this new compound comes to the blood, the system inmunitario detects it as foreign body and creates antibodies to neutralize it. Later, before the arrival of simple particles of nicotine, the defenses react and capture them ". (16)
The particles of nicotine joined the antibodies reach a size that prevents his infiltration in the brain. As result, the arrival of the nicotine to the blood does not generate in the consumer of tobacco the awaited pleasure. It is a question of an active vaccine because the own organism produces the antibodies across the system inmunitario.
This one foreseen that at the beginning of the year 2002 the Agency of Medicines and Food of The United States authorizes his test in human beings, and of being aprovada, turns into the business of the century. Though probably also in the controversy of the century since the vaccine also has preventive character and a young man might be applied for example that hereby, on having smoked a cigarette in a holiday, would not turn into an addict.

The effects of the tobacco in the energetic human field and the system of chakras
Donna Cunningham had several years working as specializing therapist addictions when it entered in touch with Andrew Ramer, a healer and canalizador with whom he collaborated to write two books: The spiritual dimensions of healing addictions (11) and Further dimensions of healing addictions

In the first book they support that in general, the human beings we fall in the addiction when we lose of sight or do not want to realize our "vision", or: " our skill of perceiving and taking part in the most wide reality, retaining a recollection, though it is weak, of our Top Being and of the tasks and intentions of our life " (11).
In the second book they explain with clarity how there were in use former the different psychoactive ones, which they are called " tools of power ", to recover and to support our vision; and since it is that, on having lost this knowledge, nowadays we abuse the same tools and to destroy ourselves with them instead of using them in our benefit.

In Further dimensions of healing addictions, between other many interesting things, explain to us which are the effects that have the principal addictive substances on the energetic human field, concretly on the system of chakras.
In case of the tobacco, Danna and Andrew start by commenting on that:
When the native Americans introduced the tobacco to the European immigrants, deliberately they left out the sage and other crucial ingrdientes to alter the conscience. On one hand, they did it due to the spiritual beginning of not announcing altering substances of the conscience to the not awake ones spiritually. The native Americans saw rapidly that, though the Europeans had overcome the poverty and they were technically adult, they were suffering from an onlooker and rather tragic spiritual delay. The Europeans did not have visions, could not communicate with the spirits of his ancestors, and were not feeling the divinity of four elements. Not only they were lacking these perceptive skills, which occasionally some native Americans were lacking, but in addition they were ridiculing arrogant to whom they could perceive such things. Clearly the Europeans were not ready for the rituals in those who were smoking these plants [...]
An additional reason of why the native Americans gave the tobacco to the Europeans without other plants was a species of biochemical strategy of war, expecting to debilitate for these powerful enemies erasing parts of his consciences, in order that they could not open the door for other dimensions in order conseguír clarity to solve problems. Many have indicated how the Europeans indujeron to the native Americans to becoming addicted to the alcohol, but few ones have noticed the subtlest but more powerful form in which the native Americans did addicts to his captors. The addiction and the esclavitid are twin events in the history, and difficultly one is without other one. The exchange of vices between oppressors and oppresseds is a constant. (19)
In relation with his effects on the subtle bodies, Danna and Andrew they assure that it produces effects in several chakras simultaneously connecting them between yes in different moments and of an uncontrolled form:
The nature of the smoke is to move freely, constructing bridges between different points in the structure of the reality. In the body, the tobacco creates bridges between different chakras, bridges that change and move to different times. The chakra root is involved. Note since you can ignite a cigar at any time and in any place, and to feel like in house with you itself for a moment.
The solar plexus also is involved. Think about all these rooms of conference full of smoke, with the people using the energy of his solar plexus for the process of work. Obviously the chakra of the throat is involved, since the throat is the entry to the body of this substance, this way it is that there is an attempt of being opened for the communication. The third eye is a part of I jump, since the intuitive flashes emerge from the cloud of smoke of the insconsciente. Those that inhale the smoke of the second hand, as the children of the strong smokers, also experience these changes of conscience routine, growing without the clear notion of which these changes are not the way usal of working.
The tobacco allows that the energies of all the chakras should be interconnected. That of the root with that of the space between the eyebrows, that of the throat with that of the root, the solar plexus with the root, constant turnándose and changing. [...] We all have a racial memory of what was meaning to smoke in the antiquity, without ambargo, for much that we smoke now the alone tobacco, the awaited result will continue being absent. The frustration of not reaching the change of condition of conscience wished, poisons the system. (19)
Besides this racial memory that it stimulates us to smoke expecting to obtain what former was offering us the tobacco mixed with other psychoactive plants inside the ritual suitable context, according to the authors there is another reason that leads us to the abuse of the tobacco:
The addicts to the cigar do not know how to dream; with this we want to say that the faculty to achieve that his dreams work for yes same has been lost, forgotten or damaged. [...] We fight with our problems of day after day across the work that we realize in the dreams. Anyone who smokes is having problems in the world of the dream. Initially, to smoke increases the diurnal perccepciones what can stimulate the catalogue of images in the world of the dreams. But if we continue smoking, such as the tobacco dismuye the sense of the taste, also it diminishes all the senses. One continues smoking more and more, but what it is necessary to do is to work with our dreams.



The caffeine is not only in the coffee, but in some teas, in the chocolate, in the nuez of kola and in other food derived from them, by what later there is included a brief synthesis of the origin of the principal sources.
The coffee-tree comes from Ethiopia, the origin of the tea seems to be in China and that of the cocoa in areas very restricted of America.

The legend on the discovery of the coffee comes from Arabia: Kaldi the shepherd observed that after having eaten the cherries of the coffee-tree, his goats were romping with more vigor that of custom, they seemed to be more active, more releases. Kaldi also proved the fruits of the plant and immediately the euphoria impeded it, put to dance and that night he slept less than of custom. Kaldi shared his find with one of his neighbors, a fervent follower of the Koran. This one obtained the same results and received of Mohammed the secret to prepare coffee from the dry grains of the fruit.

The legend on the origin of the tea comes from the Japan: Daruma, founder of the Zen Buddhism, was in the habit of going on the nights delivered to the fasting and the prayer. Certain night it could not resist the dream and when it woke up, there was so troublesome and disappointed of yes same that started the eyelids and threw them to the soil. Immediately it sprouted of them the shrub of tea which leaves have allowed to the monks to preserve the spirit free for the meditation from that one at the time.

The consumption of the chocolate arose in the pre-Hispanic Mexico: To donate to someone a cup of xocoatl on a bun covered with skin of jaguar was seen as sample of the highest respect. Aztecs, Maya, mixtecas and zapotecas were offering to his gentlemen this drink done based on cocoa, sweetened with honey and aromatized with vanilla. The good drinkers had make beat habitually the chocolate and take it while the foam was preserving.

At present, even those who do not practise the meditation take tea, Mohammed's secret it has stopped being and the Mexicans not only we teach to the world to drink chocolate, but the technologies themselves of his preparation. The consumers of the leaves of tea, the brown grains of the cocoa and the coffee-tree, count each other for million.


The caffeine is in the coffee, in the chocolate, in certain teas and in several medicines as the Cafeaspirina and the Saridon.

The caffeine was isolated in 1820. It is the principal alkaloid of the Caffea typical plant of the coffee and of the Cacahuatl or cocoa of whose grains elaborates the chocolate.
With regard to the tea there is in the habit of being a confusion because in 1827, on his active beginning having been isolated, it received the name of teína. Years later a molecular analysis allowed to discover that the teína was actually a caffeine. This alkaloid also is present in the Argentine mate and in the nuez of kola used to prepare the drinks of tail

Mechanism of action and forms of employment
The caffeine is consumed in multiple food and drinks. In therapeutic uses it can manage the affairs in oral form or in intravenous injection. It is a stimulant of the nervous central system that acts after 5 minutes of his ingestion increasing the cerebral activity and reducing the wake.
Therapeutic uses
The caffeine sells under diverse commercial brands (Cafeaspirina, Saridón) recommended to offset the fatigue, to treat the migraine and some other types of migraine. In conjunction with analgesics it does that these work better. By his aptitude to stimulate the breathing also it is recommended in the treatment of the apnea in the newborn children and as antidote for the respiratory depression in heroine's overdose and other psychoactive opiates.

A cup of coffee can contain between 60 and 110 mg of caffeine, a cup of tea between 10 and 90 mg, one of chocolate between 5 and 40 mg and the drinks of tail 35 mg. A bar of chocolate of 50 grams has between 10 and 60 mg of caffeine. The pills of therapeutic use contain between 30 and 65 mg, whereas on the black market they are in the habit of circulating so called " you graze to be kept awake " that manage to have between 100 and 200 mg. The lethal dose of caffeine is of 5,000 mg, the equivalent one to 40 cups loaded with coffee consumed in an excessively short period of time.

Psychological and physiological effects
The director of school, which name remains in the anonymity, reports them following:
On having got up in the morning I take two cups of coffee. If I do not take them I feel irritable. If I take three cups I get excited rather, but two cups are exactly what I need.
If I take coffee after three o'clock in the afternoon, I cannot sleep at the hour that I like to do it, about half after eleven. If I take a coffee after having dinner, though it is a half a cup, I remain awake the half of the night. If I have something important the following day, especially some appearance publicly, a coffee taken at the end of the day combines invariably with my edginess and produces an over-excited insomnia to me.
This insomnia after the coffee seems to me to be pharmacological. I can reach certain degree of dream and experimental it is a " floating condition " - that in me precedes in general the dream-, but then I remain there, never reach the total unconsciousness of the dream... When I know that it waits for a long section of driving by road, I do not drink coffee for two or three previous days. Throughout the night of the trip I drink coffee two times. If I have been taking a lot of coffee during the previous days, it would die that I sit less the stimulant effect of the night coffee. It is an almost a question of "saving" in the coffee that it had consumed in two or three previous days, to take it during the night that I have to lead. Used hereby, the coffee has been always a great help for me and has never trumped me. (11)
To consume between 75 and 150 mg of caffeine there raises the temperature, the respiratory pace and the level of gastric acid in the stomach. Higher quantities in the blood torrent can produce anxiety, irritability, insomnia, perspiration, tachycardia and up to diarrhea.
The long use of more 650 mg diaries of caffeine, equivalent to eight or nine cups of coffee a day can cause gastric sores, I increase in the permanent level of the cholesterol, chronic insomnia, anxiety and depression. This type of consumption also seems to be associated with cardiac dysfunctions and the appearance of certain types of cancer associated with the tars of the coffee.
Genetic malformations have not been detected due to his use, nevertheless it is known that the coffee can diminish the probability of pregnancy, to increase the irrigation of the spontaneous abortion and of babies with low weight.

Potential of dependence and tolerance
By means of the constant use a slight tolerance can be acquired to the caffeine. This drug provokes physical dependence. In the medical literature there is recorded that doses bigger than the 350 mg daily of caffeine consumed for one month can provoke the appearance of a syndrome of abstinence, for what in therapeutic uses the doctors recommend to reduce gradually the consumption. The syndrome demonstrates for irritation, weariness, depression and drowsiness. It is not serious and disappears in a few days.

For Antonio Escohotado, the habit of drinking several cups of coffee a day cannot be innocuous or at least it cannot be more harmful for the mind and the body that his equivalent one to manage the affairs in cocaine or amphetamine. " Ten cups a day, for example, represent one gram and a half of caffeine, which in effect stimulant they are equivalent to 150 mg of cocaine and to approximately 15 of metanfetamina. " (6)
What it does not clarify is that these ten cups of coffee must be consumed in a very brief space of time to reach the blood necessary concentrations to produce the same effect that psychoactive others mentioned.

Fatal intoxicaciones with caffeine are rare. Big doses, specially when they are consumed by not accustomed or sensitive subjects, can produce headaches, tachycardia, convulsions and eventually deliriums. A crisis near to the lethal dose must be considered to be a medical urgency since it has manifestations similar to those of a diabetic deprived of insulin that cause high places levels of sugar in the blood.

Legal current regime
The caffeine is the psychoactive legal one without any restriction on the age of the consumer. Of free sale still in the prepared therapeutic ones that do not need medical recipe for his purchase.

The coffee like subversive scene in Europe
Though in his beginnings the habit of taking coffee was condemned for the Islamic orthodoxy, later it managed to considered to be something providentially to pray without falling down in drowsiness and as an excellent substitute of the alcoholic drinks.
In Europe he found a strong opposition on having penetrated in some Protestant countries like Germany, Austria and Switzerland, nations that punished the trade and consumption of the coffee with fines. The apex in this fight against " a new shamelessness " her reached the Russian empire. His authorities punished the possession of coffee with atrocious tortures up to obtaining the name of the supplier and with the loss of both ears. Thanks to such repressive measures, hundreds of Russians chose for the poisoning cafeínica as subversive manifestation.
Nevertheless, to the passage of time all the prohibitions finished being repealed in Europe and from the second half of the 17th century, the coffee happened to turn in synonymous of intellectual drink thanks to the establishment of multiple trades that were offering public spaces to consume it in all the big cities.

The first coffee that was opened in France dates back of 1670. Five years later one of the personnel inaugurated his own business: the Coffee Procope, which would turn into historical scene of the illustration. As Brau documents in his History of the drugs: " The idea of the Encyclopedia is born in the coffee Procope of a conversation between D'Alembert and Diderot assembled concerning a cup of coffee, which tendería to proving that, even being a poison, clarifies the mind. ' Very slow poison ', was affirming Fontanelle, almost centenary, assiduous parishioner the Procope and very fond of the coffee. "

The effects of the caffeine in the energetic human field and the system of chakras
Donna Cunningham had several years working as specializing therapist addictions when it entered in touch with Andrew Ramer, a healer and canalizador with whom he collaborated to write two books: The spiritual dimensions of healing addictions and Further dimensions of healing addictions.

In the first book they support that in general, the human beings we fall in the addiction when we lose of sight or do not want to realize our "vision", or: " our skill of perceiving and taking part in the most wide reality, retaining a recollection, though it is weak, of our Top Being and of the tasks and intentions of our life ".
In the second book they explain with clarity how there were in use former the different psychoactive ones, which they are called " tools of power ", to recover and to support our vision; and since it is that, on having lost this knowledge, nowadays we abuse the same tools and to destroy ourselves with them instead of using them in our benefit.

In Further dimensions of healing addictions, between other many interesting things, explain to us which are the effects that have the principal addictive substances on the energetic human field, concretly on the system of chakras.
In case of the caffeine, Danna and Andrew assure that it produces effects essentially in the third chakra, across which this tool of power connects the sextro chrakra with the first one. It is because of it that, " used good, the coffee is a tool to generate visionary work and simultaneously sustentable, when connect the energies of the third eye and of the chakra root in the solar plexus ". As they count:
When our ancestors were nomadic or when they were effecting his work in house, when they were rural or craftsmen, it was easier to do this connection of a natural way. As the age of exploration and later the industrialization separated the place of work of the place of housing, this tool became more popular.
It is because of it that does not seem to them that it is an accident that the coffee has become popular globally at the same time as the imperialism was spread all over the world:
Many classes of work that the people carry out nowadays are great more plaintiffs and retadoras of what the work was in the past, and cause more doubts on one itself. [...] The chakra most affected by the caffeine is the solar plexus, the seat of the ego or the sense of the being. The corporate employment is much more wrapped in the administration and in be relating to different levels of authority that the preponderantly physical labors of before. The rests to take coffee give the sensation of expanding the power, but this is only a temporary effect. [...] Whereas initially it stimulates these three chakras in a positive way, eventually the sobreestimula and causes that they are closed. And it starts one drinking more hoping that these energies wake up again, which certainly will never happen hereby. To stop taking it, first you need to clean and to strengthen your third chakra regularly.
To energetic level, the tea affects the conscience of a different way, according to the authors:
While the coffee supports the world of the work and us energetiza to integrate the vision in the place of work, the tea has the opposite effect. It tends to traverse a veil between the vision and the work. It encourages us to the contemplation separated from the action, affecting the same chakras but in a different way. Everything what we need to understand this is to compare the differences between one " coffe brake " and a ceremony of tea, a ritual which effect already is not cultivated by our society. Many of us we take tea, but already not as a tool of power, but as a simple stimulant...
If the refreshments of tail and the coffee us rest on the work, and the tea helps us disconnect of him, " the chocolate uses as a recompenza to the work, and as a substitute for the alternative of work that our culture difficultly allows us - the love ". In fact, it is known that " a chemist found in the chocolate is one of the same ones that our brain produces when we are inspired love ".
In case of the chocolate, since in that of the refreshments of tail, it is very difficult to say what so much treats himself about an addiction to the caffeine and what so much is an addiction to the sugar. This way it is that it is turns out to be advisable to consult also the information about the effects of the sugar in the energetic human field.
In short, Danna and Andrew say to us that " the coffee is a tool to liberate energy of work ", nevertheless, when one abuses him, it produces the opposite effect since " it is not a nourishing product and his introduction repeated in the digestive tract is a violation of the territorial integrity of our organs ". The infrequent use, on the other hand, " can help us to stimulate the body in order that it works with efficiency and can help us to demonstrate our visions due to the effect that has on the energetic human field ".

To leave an addiction the authors recommend that at par of asisitir to psychological therapies already they are personal or grupales and of surrendering to a treatment of physical detoxification under medical supervision, in case ésto is necessary, also it is advisable to practise alternative technologies to revert the hurts caused by the abuse of the different substances in the energetic human field. For it they offer us in his second book an excellent series of exercises of visualization, as well as remedies of aromoterapia and gemoterapia specifics for every to repair the hurts provoked by each of the different substances. Additional, certain graphs canalized by Andrew are included to reschedule the biocomputadoras that are our brains.
As they affirm: " The habits, the addictions are printed inside our cerebral circuits of the same way in which the circuits of a computer are programmed. To interrupt a habit, you need to erase and to reschedule the circuit ", and for it they serve the different graphs canalized for every type of drug.